When an argument appears in brackets, it is optional or
only required in certain circumstances.
A vertical bar separating two arguments is a logical OR.
Words in ALL_CAPITALS are placeholders.
Takes the word you give it as an argument and searches the short description line at the top of all man pages for a match.
Starts a bash shell as a subprocess of your current shell.
Sends a suspended job into the background, where it resumes running.
If there is more than one suspended job, the job number must be given as an argument.
Prints the contents of the file given as its argument to the screen.
|-n||Prints the line number at the beginning of each line|
Changes your current directory.
When no directory name is specified, your home directory is assumed.
To go up one level to the parent directory, use .. instead of a directory name.
Changes permission on a file or directory.
The permissions may be specified, relative to their current state, by a symbolic argument, or absolutely by a numeric argument.
chmod PERMISSIONS FILENAME|DIRECTORY_NAME
Creates a copy of a file or directory.
|-r||Copies a directory and all its contents|
Prints the current date and time.
Prints the difference between two files.
|-y||Prints the output in human-readable form.|
diff FILE_1 FILE_2
Prints the string given as an argument to Standard Output.
|-n||Does not advance to the next line after printing the string|
When used without an argument, returns the values of all global variables.
Brings the background job specified into the foreground.
Can be used without an argument if there is only one background job running.
When run with no argument, displays information on all current users connected to the host.
When run with an argument searches its store of user information to display what it knows about all possible matches to the string supplied.
Prints every line in a file where a string occurs.
|-i||Ignores capitalization when determining a match|
|-v||Returns all lines that do not contain the string|
|-r||Searches recursively through all directories beneath the directory supplied as an argument|
grep SEARCH_STRING FILENAME
Prints the first 10 lines in a file.
|-NUMBER||Returns the first NUMBER lines|
Returns the name of the host machine.
|-i||Returns the TCP/IP address of the host machine|
Returns information on all currently running jobs.
Stops a background job.
kill PROCESS_ID kill % JOB_NUMBER
Prints the contents of a file one screenful at a time.
Returns the pathname of every file and directory that contains the search string.
Prints the contents of the directory specified or the current directory if run without an argument
|-a||Prints all contents of the directory, including the"invisible" files whose simple names start with a .|
|-l||Prints a long listing of the directory contents showing the owner, group and permissions of each entry|
|-d||Prints a directory rather than its contents|
|-t||Sorts the list by modification date rather than alphabetically|
|-r||Reverses the sort order of the list|
Creates a link to a file or directory.
Usually run with the -s option to create a symbolic, rather than a hard link.
Soft links are more flexible than hard links.
If no second argument is used, the name of the link will be the same as the file or directory pointed to by the link.
ln -s PATHNAME [LINK_NAME]
Prints information on the command given as its argument.
Creates a directory with the name specified.
Prints the contents of a file, one screenfull at a time
Moves a file from one place to another, when the second argument is a directory.
Also used to rename a file.
mv FILENAME DIRECTORY_NAME mv OLD_FILENAME NEW_FILENAME
Prints the absolute pathname of your current directory.
|-P||Prints the "true" absolute pathname of the current directory, that is, it does not use a link in the pathname it returns, even if you used that link to get to the current directory|
Deletes a file.
Cannot be undone.
rm * removes everything in the current directory.
Will not remove a directory unless used with -r option.
|-r||Remove directories and their contents recursively|
|-i||Prints a prompt before removing a file or directory|
|-f||Force - ignores warnings|
Removes a directory.
Command will not work if the directory is not empty.
Creates a record of your Unix session.
Once you run
script everything you type and all
output from the screen is recorded in a file, whose name
by default is typescript.
|-a||Appends output to a previously created typescript file|
Prints a file with each line sorted alphabetically.
|-r||Reverses the normal sort order|
|-n||Sort in numeric, rather than alphabetical, order|
Allows you to login to another Unix machine from your current Unix machine.
Prints the last 10 lines in a file.
|-NUMBER||Returns the last NUMBER lines|
When placed in a pipeline, sends its output to a file before passing it to Standard Output.
Prints some system information.
|-a||Prints more complete information on the current system|
Prints a file with adjacent identical lines removed.
Prints the absolute address of the executable file for a given Unix command.
Shows all currently logged in users.